Antonis Giannopoulos


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Personal profile


I am a geophysicist working in engineering. After graduating with a Πτυχιον (BSc) in Geology from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece, specialising in geophysics, I moved to England where I obtained my doctorate (DPhil) in Electronics from The University of York working on ground penetrating radars. After an 18-month national service in the Greek Army, I returned to the United Kingdom and moved to Edinburgh for post-doctoral research and I have been living here ever since. Although I started my career working on archaeological geophysics, after moving to Edinburgh, I have been working on the development and application of geophysical methods in engineering and especially in infrastructure sensing. My published works are mostly on various aspects of ground penetrating radar research but focused mostly on the advancement of its realistic numerical modelling that also includes methodological imporvements of the underlying numerical scheme, its application and data interpratation methodologies from data processing to inversion and more recently to employing machine learning approaches for automating GPR data analysis.  

I am a member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and of the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers and a Fellow of The Geological Society of London. I was the General Chair of the 9th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar organised in Edinburgh in the summer of 2017.

Research Interests

I work primarily on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), a tool and a geophysical method with diverse applications, focusing strongly on the development of numerical modelling methodologies and simulation for the understanding of GPR’s responses obtained from a number of complex environments.

The nature of my research on applied geophysics and GPR is strongly interdisciplinary spanning several traditional areas of science and engineering. From applied computational physics, GPR wideband antennas, absorbing boundary conditions for wave simulations, and computational electrodynamics to inspection and sensing of infrastructure elements and systems such are buildings, roads and bridges. My GPR research has been applied from the study of the very near-surface GPR applications, for example for antipersonel landmine detection, to the GPR modelling and its applications in much deeper glacier and ice probing. More recently together with my research collaborators we have been exploring the development of numerical analysis tools to understand GPR data from radar sensors used for planetary exploration.

In 1997 I created the original version of gprMax a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulator for GPR research. Today gprMax is the most widely used open-source GPR simulator with expanding applications in other areas of computational electrodynamics. I continue to direct its current development and enhancement together with my research collaborators who now lead the actual gprMax code development and with contributions also from a number summer intern students participating and sponsored by the Google Summer of Code


Current Research Interests

  • Ground Penetrting Radar modelling and application
  • Finite-Difference Time-Domain method for electrodynmics
  • Absorbing Boundary Conditions 
  • Computational Electrodynamics
  • UWB antennas for GPRs
  • Artificial Inteligence for developing frameworks to automatically interpret GPR data
  • Advanced GPR processing and imaging
  • Application of GPR for landmine detection and security applications
  • Infrastructure sensing applications of GPR
  • Archaeological geophysics


I am the course organiser for our 2nd year course on land surveying fundamentals Surveying for Construction 2 and for a Honours elective course on understading the fundamental principles and applications of ground penetrating radar Infrastructure Sensing using GPR 5

Administrative Roles

  • Head of Civil and Environmental Engineering 2019 - 2022
  • Discipline Programme Manager CEE 2018 - 2019
  • College Library and Information Strategy Committee 2008 -
  • Civil Engineering Exchange Coordinator 2008 - 2018


Open Source Finite-Difference Time-Domain electromagnetic simulator

Google Scholar profile

Visiting and Research Positions

Visiting Researcher - The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Education/Academic qualification

Electronics, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), The Investigation of Transmission-Line Matrix and Finite-Difference Time-Domain Methods for the Forward Problem of Ground Probing Radar, University of York

Award Date: 1 Jun 1997

Geology, Bachelor of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Award Date: 18 Jul 1991


  • TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
  • Infrastructure Sensing
  • Concrete Inspection
  • NDT
  • Q Science (General)
  • computational electrodynamics
  • Finite-Difference Time-Domain
  • Ground Penetrating Radar
  • Numerical Modelling
  • Simulation
  • Applied Geophysics
  • Engineering Geophysics
  • Landmine detection
  • Open Source Software


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