The research involved an empirical study of knowledge creation, learning and action in the environmental justice movement in Scotland. Our particular interest addressed how campaigners used information and communication technologies (ICTs) (primarily email and the Internet in this study) and what impact these had on their sense of identity, understanding, involvement and action.
We identify four main uses of ICTs (strategic, facilitative, symbolic and disruptive) which are important for classifying their relevance and role in knowledge building, learning and campaigning. The function of ICTs varies according to context and the nature of involvement. ICT use is neither simply a 'hook' into activism, nor a substitute for offline activism. ICTs contributed to social learning, autodidactic activity, lateral forms of learning as well as traditional means of study.