## Abstract / Description of output

In the simulation of complex multi-scale flows covering various flow regimes, the computational efficiency of gas kinetic method by which the evolution equation of velocity distribution function is solved directly is the key to engineering applications. In order to accelerate simulation for steady flows, a gas kinetic algorithm accelerated by utilizing the macroscopic conservative equations with a digital constitutive relation is developed. In this algorithm, the contribution of the high-order terms of stress and heat flux in macroscopic conservative equations is determined by the gas kinetic solution. Meanwhile, the solution of the macroscopic conservative equations provides the macroscopic quantities for the equilibrium distribution function in the Boltzmann model equation, where a fully implicit scheme to solve the Boltzmann model equation is developed. Extensive validations are performed for the cavity flow, the supersonic flow around the cylinder, and the interactive rarefied flow around two side-by-side cylinders. The results from the above method are in good agreement with the results from the conventional gas kinetic unified algorithm and the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. It can be concluded that the nonlinear constitutive relation of rarefied flow can be well captured by the present method. And the ability of this method to simulate complex flows such as shock wave, strong wall shear and flow separation is demonstrated. Furthermore, the present method has shown to be much faster than the conventional gas kinetic unified algorithm, especially for the low- Kn flows. As the value of Kn increases, the acceleration rate decreases, because the effect of flow convection becomes weak. Meanwhile, more effort is needed to reduce inner loop iterations to improve its efficiency.

Translated title of the contribution | Method of accelerating convergence for gas kinetic algorithm based on digital constitutive relation of macroscopic equations |
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Original language | Chinese (Traditional) |

Article number | 204702 |

Journal | Wuli Xuebao/Acta Physica Sinica |

Volume | 69 |

Issue number | 20 |

Early online date | 10 Oct 2020 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 20 Oct 2020 |

## Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

- Constitutive relation
- Convergence accelerated method
- Coupled method
- Gas kinetic unified algorithm