BACKGROUND: The RITA-3 (Third Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina) trial compared outcomes of a routine early invasive strategy (coronary arteriography and myocardial revascularization, as clinically indicated) to those of a selective invasive strategy (coronary arteriography for recurrent ischemia only) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). At a median of 5 years' follow-up, the routine invasive strategy was associated with a 24% reduction in the odds of all-cause mortality.
OBJECTIVES: This study reports 10-year follow-up outcomes of the randomized cohort to determine the impact of a routine invasive strategy on longer-term mortality.
METHODS: We randomized 1,810 patients with NSTEACS to receive routine invasive or selective invasive strategies. All randomized patients had annual follow-up visits up to 5 years, and mortality was documented thereafter using data from the Office of National Statistics.
RESULTS: Over 10 years, there were no differences in mortality between the 2 groups (all-cause deaths in 225 [25.1%] vs. 232 patients [25.4%]: p = 0.94; and cardiovascular deaths in 135 [15.1%] vs. 147 patients [16.1%]: p = 0.65 in the routine invasive and selective invasive groups, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified several independent predictors of 10-year mortality: age, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, smoking status, diabetes, heart rate, and ST-segment depression. A modified post-discharge Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score was used to calculate an individual risk score for each patient and to form low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups. Risk of death within 10 years varied markedly from 14.4 % in the low-risk group to 56.2% in the high-risk group. This mortality trend did not depend on the assigned treatment strategy.
CONCLUSIONS: The advantage of reduced mortality of routine early invasive strategy seen at 5 years was attenuated during later follow-up, with no evidence of a difference in outcome at 10 years. Further trials of contemporary intervention strategies in patients with NSTEACS are warranted. (Third Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina trial [RITA-3]; ISRCTN07752711).
- Acute Coronary Syndrome
- Cause of Death
- Coronary Angiography
- Coronary Artery Bypass
- Follow-Up Studies
- Great Britain
- Middle Aged
- Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
- Risk Factors