The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) has an essential role in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by converting 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids to inactive 11-ketosteroids. Congenital deficiency of 11β-HSD2 causes a form of salt-sensitive hypertension known as the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. The disease phenotype, which ranges from mild to severe, correlates well with reduction in enzyme activity. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the 11β-HSD2 coding gene (HSD11B2) have been linked to high blood pressure and salt-sensitivity, major cardiovascular risk factors. 11β-HSD2 expression is controlled by different factors such as cytokines, sex steroids or vasopressin, but post-translational modulation of its activity has not been explored. Analysis of 11β-HSD2 sequence revealed a consensus site for conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) peptide, a major post-translational regulatory event in several cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that 11β-HSD2 is SUMOylated at lysine 266. Non-SUMOylatable mutant K266R showed slightly higher substrate affinity and decreased Vmax, but no effects on protein stability or subcellular localization. Despite mild changes in enzyme activity, mutant K266R was unable to prevent cortisol-dependent MR nuclear translocation. The same effect was achieved by co-expression of wild-type 11β-HSD2 with SENP1, a protease that catalyzes SUMO deconjugation. In the presence of 11β-HSD2-K266R increased nuclear MR localization did not correlate with increased response to cortisol or increased recruitment of transcriptional co-regulators. Taken together, our data suggests that SUMOylation of 11β-HSD2 at residue K266 modulates cortisol-mediated MR nuclear translocation independently of effects on transactivation.
- Journal Article