2012 Update: World Allergy Organization Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis

World Allergy Org, F. Estelle R. Simons*, Ledit R. F. Ardusso, M. Beatrice Bilo, Vesselin Dimov, Motohiro Ebisawa, Yehia M. El-Gamal, Dennis K. Ledford, Richard F. Lockey, Johannes Ring, Mario Sanchez-Borges, Gian Enrico Senna, Aziz Sheikh, Bernard Y. Thong, Margitta Worm

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Purpose of review

The World Allergy Organization (WAO) Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis published in early 2011 provide a global perspective on patient risk factors, triggers, clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of anaphylaxis. In this 2012 Update, subsequently published, clinically relevant research in these areas is reviewed.

Recent findings

Patient risk factors and co-factors that amplify anaphylaxis have been documented in prospective studies. The global perspective on the triggers of anaphylaxis has expanded. The clinical criteria for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis that are promulgated in the Guidelines have been validated. Some aspects of anaphylaxis treatment have been prospectively studied. Novel investigations of self-injectable epinephrine for treatment of anaphylaxis recurrences in the community have been performed. Progress has been made with regard to measurement of specific IgE to allergen components (component-resolved testing) that might help to distinguish clinical risk of future anaphylactic episodes to an allergen from asymptomatic sensitization to the allergen. New strategies for immune modulation to prevent food-induced anaphylaxis and new insights into subcutaneous immunotherapy to prevent venom-induced anaphylaxis have been described.


Research highlighted in this Update strengthens the evidence-based recommendations for assessment, management, and prevention of anaphylaxis made in the WAO Anaphylaxis Guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-399
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent opinion in allergy and clinical immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • RISK
  • patient risk factors for anaphylaxis
  • prevention of anaphylaxis
  • IGE
  • epinephrine (adrenaline) in first-line treatment of anaphylaxis
  • clinical diagnosis of anaphylaxis


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