## Abstract

In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov's solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c = 1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU(N ) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 105 |

Number of pages | 26 |

Journal | Journal of High Energy Physics |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 20 Jan 2015 |

## Keywords

- Confinement
- Lattice Gauge Field Theories
- LATTICE GAUGE-THEORY
- THERMAL FLUCTUATIONS
- CONFINING STRINGS
- ROUGH INTERFACES
- HIGGS-MODEL
- LARGE-N
- CONFINEMENT
- APPROXIMATION
- FORMULATION
- DEPENDENCE