A Divergent Substrate-Binding Loop within the Pro-oncogenic Protein Anterior Gradient-2 Forms a Docking Site for Reptin

Magdalena M. Maslon, Roman Hrstka, Borek Vojtesek, Ted R. Hupp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) functions in a range of biological systems, including goblet cell formation, limb regeneration, inhibition of p53, and metastasis. There are no well-validated binding proteins for AGR2 protein despite the wealth of data implicating an important cellular function in vertebrates. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate the ATP binding protein Reptin as an AGR2-interacting protein. AGR2 formed a stable complex in human cell ysates with Reptin, thus validating Reptin as an AGR2 binding protein in cells. Reptin was also shown to be overproduced in a panel of primary breast cancer biopsy specimens, relative to normal adjacent tissue from the same patient, suggesting a role in cancer growth in vivo. Mutations were made at the two ATP binding motifs in Reptin to evaluate the effects of ATP on Reptin AGR2 complex stability. Loss-of-ATP binding mutations at the Walker A motif (K83A) or gain-of-ATP binding mutations at the Walker B motif (D299N) resulted in Reptin mutants with altered oligomerization, thermostability, and AGR2 binding properties. These data indicate that the two ATP binding motifs of Reptin play a role in regulating the stability of the AGR2 Reptin complex. The minimal region of AGR2 interacting with Reptin was localized using overlapping peptide libraries derived from the AGR2 protein sequence. The Reptin docking site was mapped to a divergent octapeptide loop in the AGR2 superfamily between amino acids 104 and 111. Mutations at codon Y104 or F111 in full-length AGR2 destabilized the binding of Reptin. These data highlight the existence of a protein docking motif on AGR2 and an ATP-regulated peptide-binding activity for Reptin. This knowledge has implications for isolating other AGR2-interacting proteins, for developing assays to isolate small molecules that target the Reptin ATP binding site, and for measuring the effects of the Reptin AGR2 complex in cancer cell growth. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-438
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume404
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2010

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