A Flattened Hierarchical Scheduler for Real-time Virtualization

Michael Drescher, Vincent Legout, Antonio Barbalace, Binoy Ravindran

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract / Description of output

Migrating legacy real-time software stacks to newer hardware platforms can be achieved with virtualization which allows several software stacks to run on a single machine. Existing solutions guarantee that deadlines of virtualized real-time systems are met but can only accommodate a reduced number of systems. Therefore, this paper introduces ExVM, a new scheduling framework to maximize the number of legacy uniprocessor real-time systems able to run on a single machine. Contrary to most existing solutions, ExVM uses a flattening approach where the host schedules the virtual machine which contains the task with the earliest deadline. The real-time characteristics of tasks are obtained through introspection during the execution. We implemented this framework using Linux’s SCHED_DEADLINE real-time scheduling policy in the host. Simulations using an exact schedulability test show that ExVM is able to schedule 96% of randomly generated tasksets with a utilization of at least 0.8, while state-of-the-art solutions are only able to schedule 40% of the same tasksets. Experimental evaluations performed using synthetic benchmarks and production real-time applications show that ExVM always outperforms the existing solutions, always meeting more than 80% of deadlines while these solutions fall below 50% when the utilization increases.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 13th International Conference on Embedded Software
Place of PublicationNew York, NY, USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)978-1-4503-4485-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016
Event13th International Conference on Embedded Software 2016 - https://www.esweek.org/archive/home, Pittsburgh, United States
Duration: 2 Oct 20167 Oct 2016


Conference13th International Conference on Embedded Software 2016
Abbreviated titleEMSOFT 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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