A Fully Digital 8x16 SiPM Array for PET Applications With Per-Pixel TDCs and Real-Time Energy Output

Leo H. C. Braga, Leonardo Gasparini, Lindsay A. Grant, Robert Henderson, Nicola Massari, Matteo Perenzoni, David Stoppa, Richard Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

An 8 × 16 pixel array based on CMOS small-area silicon photomultipliers (mini-SiPMs) detectors for PET applications is reported. Each pixel is 570 × 610 μm2 in size and contains four digital mini-SiPMs, for a total of 720 SPADs, resulting in a full chip fill-factor of 35.7%. For each gamma detection, the pixel provides the total detected energy and a timestamp, obtained through two 7-b counters and two 12-b 64-ps TDCs. An adder tree overlaid on top of the pixel array sums the sensor total counts at up to 100 Msamples/s, which are then used for detecting the asynchronous gamma events on-chip, while also being output in real-time. Characterization of gamma detection performance with an 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 LYSO scintillator at 20°C is reported, showing a 511-keV gamma energy resolution of 10.9% and a coincidence timing resolution of 399 ps.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-314
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume49
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

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