A High Dynamic Range 128×120 3D-Stacked CMOS SPAD Image Sensor SoC for Fluorescence Microendoscopy

Ahmet Erdogan, Tarek Al Abbas, Neil Finlayson, Charlotte Hopkinson, Istvan Gyongy, Oscar Almer, Neale Dutton, Robert K. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

A miniaturized 1.4mm × 1.4mm, 128 × 120 single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensor with a 5-wire interface is designed for time-resolved fluorescence microendoscopy. This is the first endoscopic chip-on-tip sensor capable of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The sensor provides a novel, compact means to extend the photon counting dynamic range (DR) by partitioning the required bit-depth between in-pixel counters and off-pixel noiseless frame summation. The sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40nm/90nm 3D-stacked backside-illuminated (BSI) CMOS process with 8 μm pixels and 45% fill factor. The sensor capabilities are demonstrated through FLIM examples, including ex-vivo human lung tissue, obtained at video rate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1649-1660
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume57
Issue number6
Early online date1 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • 3-D stacking
  • chip-on-tip
  • CMOS image sensor (CIS)
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)
  • High dynamic range (HDR)
  • microendoscopy
  • Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)
  • system-on-chip (SoC)
  • time gating
  • time resolved
  • Random access memory
  • Dynamic range
  • single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)
  • Registers
  • Endoscopes
  • Imaging
  • Logic gates
  • high dynamic range (HDR)
  • Single-photon avalanche diodes

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