A highly divergent picornavirus in a marine mammal

A. Kapoor, J. Victoria, P. Simmonds, C. Wang, R. W. Shafer, R. Nims, O. Nielsen, E. Delwart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nucleic acids from an unidentified virus from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) were amplified using sequence-independent PCR, subcloned, and then sequenced. The full genome of a novel RNA virus was derived, identifying the first sequence-confirmed picornavirus in a marine mammal. The phylogenetic position of the tentatively named seal picornavirus I (SePV-1) as an outlier to the grouping of parechoviruses was found consistently in alignable regions of the genome. A mean protein sequence identity of only 19.3 to 30.0% was found between the 3D polymerase gene sequence of SePV-1 and those of other picornaviruses. The predicted secondary structure of the short 506-base 5'-untranslated region showed some attributes of a type IVB internal ribosome entry site, and the polyprotein lacked an apparent L pepticle, both properties associated with the Parechovirus genus. The presence of two SePV-1 2A genes and of the canonical sequence required for cotranslational cleavage resembled the genetic organization of Ljungan virus. Minor genetic variants were detected in culture supernatants derived from 8 of 108 (7.4%) seals collected in 2000 to 2002, indicating a high prevalence of SePV-1 in this hunted seal population. The high level of genetic divergence of SePV-1 compared to other picornaviruses and its mix of characteristics relative to its closest relatives support the provisional classification of SePV-1 as the prototype for a new genus in the family Picornaviridae.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-20
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume82
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008

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