A Machine Learning-Based Classification Method for Monitoring Alzheimer’s Disease Using Electromagnetic Radar Data

Rahmat Ullah, Yinhuan Dong, Tughrul Arslan, Siddharthan Chandran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are two neurodegenerative brain disorders affecting more than 50 million people globally. Early diagnosis and appropriate assessment of disease progression are critical for treatment and improving patients’ health. Currently, the diagnosis of these neurodegenerative diseases is based primarily on mental status exams and neuroimaging scans, which are costly, time-consuming, and sometimes erroneous. Novel, cost-effective, and precise diagnostic tools and techniques are, thus, urgently required, particularly for early detection and prediction. In the recent decade, electromagnetic imaging has evolved as a cost-effective and noninvasive alternative approach for studying brain diseases. These studies focus on wearable and portable devices and imaging algorithms. However, microwave imaging cannot detect minimal changes in the brain at early stages accurately due to its lower resolution. This article investigates machine learning (ML) techniques for the early diagnosis of acute neurological diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A machine-learning-based classification method is proposed. Simulations are performed on realistic numerical brain phantoms using the CST studio suite to get the scattered signals. A novel data augmentation method is proposed to generate synthetic data required for ML algorithms. A deep neural network-based autoencoder extracts features to train various ML algorithms. The classification results are compared with raw data and manual feature extraction. The study shows that the proposed ML-based method could be used to monitor AD at its early stages.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10051151
Pages (from-to)4012-4026
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number9
Early online date23 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Microwave theory and techniques
  • Microwave imaging
  • Imaging
  • Microwave integrated circuits
  • Microwave FET integrated circuits
  • Feature extraction
  • Diseases
  • data augmentation
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD)
  • machine learning (ML)
  • radar data
  • classification
  • microwave sensing


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