A model for holding strategy in public transit systems with real-time information

Saeed Zolfaghari, Nader Azizi, Mohamad Y. Jaber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Holding strategies are among the most commonly used operation-control strategies in public transit systems. These strategies are most effective when used to control services characterized by high frequency. In this paper, a mathematical model for a holding control strategy is developed. Particularly, this model uses real-time information of locations of buses along a specified route. The objective of the developed model is to minimize the waiting time of passengers at all stops on that route. Furthermore, the model developed in this paper is characterized by the flexibility of adopting situations where bus occupancy could be either high, or low. A heuristic is developed to circumvent the complexity of the solution for the problem described. Numerical examples and computational results are presented and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-110
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Transport Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • heuristics
  • holding strategies
  • passengers waiting time
  • public transit
  • real-time information
  • simulated annealing

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