A novel method for sex estimation using 3D computed tomography models of tooth roots: A volumetric analysis

Seyedeh Kazzazi, Elena Kranioti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advances in technologies such as computed tomography (CT) scanning have allowed for further examination of dental sexual dimorphism in modern and archaeological populations.

The present study investigates a new technique for sex estimation using the volume of the tooth root. To achieve this goal, the degree of sexual dimorphism in the volume of the permanent tooth root was investigated using CT images of two Iranian archaeological populations, and the applicability of this measurement in sex estimation was evaluated by means of discriminant function analysis.

This study was based on the skeletal remains of 52 individuals (32 males, 20 females) from two Iron Age populations in close temporal and geographic proximity in the Solduz Valley (north-western Iran). In total, 464 3D models of permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth were used for sex estimation.

Statistical analysis of tooth root volume measurements revealed significant differences between males and females. Univariate discriminant functions resulted in classification accuracy that ranged from 80.6 to 100%. The best single variable was found to be the maxillary second incisor (100%), followed by the maxillary canine (97.1%). In a stepwise discriminant function analysis, 6 functions out of the 12 functions provided an accuracy of 100%.

This study shows that tooth root volume is highly sexually dimorphic and can be very useful for sex estimation in archaeological populations. Upon further testing this method can be expanded in contemporary populations with the use of the tooth root volume to estimate sex in forensic settings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-208
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
Early online date4 Aug 2017
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


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