A numerical guide to the solution of the bi-domain equations of cardiac electrophysiology

Pras Pathmanathan, Miguel O Bernabeu, Rafel Bordas, Jonathan Cooper, Alan Garny, Joe M Pitt-Francis, Jonathan P Whiteley, David J Gavaghan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Simulation of cardiac electrical activity using the bi-domain equations can be a massively computationally demanding problem. This study provides a comprehensive guide to numerical bi-domain modelling. Each component of bi-domain simulations--discretization, ODE-solution, linear system solution, and parallelization--is discussed, and previously-used methods are reviewed, new methods are proposed, and issues which cause particular difficulty are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to the choice of stimulus currents, compatibility conditions for the equations, the solution of singular linear systems, and convergence of the numerical scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-55
Number of pages20
JournalProgress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Issue number2-3
Early online date27 May 2010
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2010


  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Computer Simulation
  • Heart
  • Models, Cardiovascular


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