former explosives and ammunition plants, as well as military areas (Stenuit, Agathos 2010). TNT has been reported to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential in studies with several organisms, including bacteria (Lachance et al. 1999), which has led environmental agencies to declare a high priority for its removal from soils (van Dillewijn et al. 2007). Both bacteria and fungi have been shown to possess the capacity to degrade TNT (Kalderis et al. 2011). Bacteria may degrade TNT under aerobic or anaerobic conditions directly (TNT is source of carbon and/or nitrogen) or via co-metabolism where additional substrates are needed (Rylott et al. 2011). Fungi degrade TNT via the actions of nonspecific extracellular enzymes and for production of these enzymes growth substrates (cellulose, lignin) are needed. Contrary to bioremediation technologies using bacteria or bioaugmentation, fungal bioremediation requires an ex situ approach instead of in situ treatment (i.e. soil is excavated, homogenised an supplemented with nutrients) (Baldrian 2008). This limits applicability
of bioremediation of TNT by fungi in situ be cost-effective, which could, in turn, adjust national perspectives and stronger involvement in developing mitigation
policies at the regional level. Biochar has much promise in temperate conditions and further research should therefore be assigned to explore biochar’s environmental and socio-economic impacts.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management|
|Publication status||Published - 28 Jun 2017|