A Review of Predictive and Prescriptive Offshore Wind Farm Operation and Maintenance

Harriet Fox*, Ajit C. Pillai*, Daniel Friedrich, Maurizio Collu, Tariq Dawood, Lars Johanning

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Offshore wind farms are a rapidly developing source of clean, low-carbon energy and as they continue to grow in scale and capacity, so does the requirement for their efficient and optimised operation and maintenance. Historically, approaches to maintenance have been purely reactive. However, there is a movement in offshore wind, and wider industry in general, towards more proactive, condition-based maintenance approaches which rely on operational data-driven decision making. This paper reviews the current efforts in proactive maintenance strategies, both predictive and prescriptive, of which the latter is an evolution of the former. Both use operational data to determine whether a turbine component will fail in order to provide sufficient warning to carry out necessary maintenance. Prescriptive strategies also provide optimised maintenance actions, incorporating predictions into a wider maintenance plan to address predicted failure modes. Beginning with a summary of common techniques used across both strategies, this review moves on to discuss their respective applications in offshore wind operation and maintenance. This review concludes with suggested areas for future work, underlining the need for models which can be simply incorporated by site operators and integrate live data whilst handling uncertainties. A need for further focus on medium-term planning strategies is also highlighted along with consideration of the question of how to quantify the impact of a proactive maintenance strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number504
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2022


  • Offshore wind
  • Failure prediction
  • Failure prognosis
  • Operation and maintenance planning
  • Prescriptive maintenance


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