A SPAD-Based QVGA Image Sensor for Single-Photon Counting and Quanta Imaging

Neale Dutton, Istvan Gyongy, Luca Parmesan, Salvatore Gnecchi, N. Calder, Bruce Rae, Sara Pellegrini, Lindsay A. Grant, Robert Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

A CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based quarter video graphics array image sensor with 8-μm pixel pitch and 26.8% fill factor (FF) is presented. The combination of analog pixel electronics and scalable shared-well SPAD devices facilitates high-resolution, high-FF SPAD imaging arrays exhibiting photon shot-noise-limited statistics. The SPAD has 47 counts/s dark count rate at 1.5 V excess bias (EB), 39.5% photon detection probability (PDP) at 480 nm, and a minimum of 1.1 ns dead time at 1 V EB. Analog single-photon counting imaging is demonstrated with maximum 14.2-mV/SPAD event sensitivity and 0.06e - minimum equivalent read noise. Binary quanta image sensor (QIS) 16-kframes/s real-time oversampling is shown, verifying single-photon QIS theory with 4.6× overexposure latitude and 0.168e - read noise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-196
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Volume63
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Sept 2015

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • image sensors
  • arrays
  • Radiation detectors
  • noise
  • Photonics

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