A survey of second-life batteries based on techno-economic perspective and applications-based analysis

Huma Iqbal*, Sohail Sarwar, Desen Kirli, Jonathan K.H. Shek, Aristides E. Kiprakis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The penetration of electrical vehicles (EVs) is exponentially rising to decarbonize the transport sector resulting in the research problem regarding the future of their retired batteries. Landfill disposal poses an environmental hazard, therefore, recycling or reusing them as second-life batteries (SLBs) are the inevitable options. Reusing the EV batteries with significant remaining useful life in stationary storage applications maximizes the economic benefits while extending the useful lifetime before recycling. Following a critical review of the research in SLBs, the key areas were identified as accurate State of Health (SOH) estimation, optimization of health indicators, battery life cycle assessment including repurposing, End-Of-Life (EOL) extension techniques and significance of first-life degradation data on ageing in second-life applications. The inconsistencies found in the reviewed literature showed that the absence of degradation data from first as well as second life, has a serious impact on accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction and SOH estimation. This review, for the first time, critically surveyed the recent studies in the field of identification, selection and control of application-based health indicators in relation to the accurate SOH estimation, offering future research directions in this emerging research area. In addition to the technical challenges, this paper also analyzed the economic perspective of SLBs, highlighting the impact of accuracy in second-life SOH estimation and RUL extension on their projected revenue in stationary storage applications. Lack of standard business model based on future market trends of energy and battery pricing and governing policies for SLBs are identified as urgent research gaps.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Number of pages28
JournalCarbon Neutrality
Issue number1
Early online date3 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Battery degradation
  • Energy storage system
  • Second life batteries
  • State of Health (SOH) estimation


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