A theory of mind investigation into the appreciation of visual jokes in schizophrenia

D. Marjoram, H. Tansley, P. Miller, D. MacIntyre, D. G. Owens, E. C. Johnstone, S. Lawrie

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BACKGROUND: There is evidence that groups of people with schizophrenia have deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) capabilities. Previous studies have found these to be linked to psychotic symptoms (or psychotic symptom severity) particularly the presence of delusions and hallucinations. METHODS: A visual joke ToM paradigm was employed where subjects were asked to describe two types of cartoon images, those of a purely Physical nature and those requiring inferences of mental states for interpretation, and to grade them for humour and difficulty. Twenty individuals with a DSM-lV diagnosis of schizophrenia and 20 healthy matched controls were studied. Severity of current psychopathology was measured using the Krawiecka standardized scale of psychotic symptoms. IQ was estimated using the Ammons and Ammons quick test. RESULTS: Individuals with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in both conditions, this difference being most marked in the ToM condition. No relationship was found for poor ToM performance and psychotic positive symptomatology, specifically delusions and hallucinations. CONCLUSION: There was evidence for a compromised ToM capability in the schizophrenia group on this visual joke task. In this instance this could not be linked to particular symptomatology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • Awareness Cartoons as Topic Delusions/diagnosis/psychology Hallucinations/diagnosis/psychology Humans Imagination Intelligence Tests Models, Psychological Psychiatric Status Rating Scales Schizophrenia/
  • diagnosis
  • psychology
  • Schizophrenic Psychology Social Perception Wit and Humor as Topic/


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