## Abstract

The Fiat-Shamir (FS) transform is a popular technique for obtaining practical zero-knowledge argument systems. The FS transform uses a hash function to generate, without any further overhead, non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument systems from public-coin honest-verifier zero-knowledge (public-coin HVZK) proof systems. In the proof of zero knowledge, the hash function is modeled as a programmable random oracle (PRO).

In TCC 2015, Lindell embarked on the challenging task of obtaining a similar transform with improved heuristic security. Lindell showed that, for several interesting and practical languages, there exists an efficient transform in the

In this work, we analyze the efficiency and generality of Lindell’s transform and notice a significant gap when compared with the FS transform. We then propose a new transform that aims at filling this gap. Indeed our transform is almost as efficient as the FS transform and can be applied to a broad class of public-coin HVZK proof systems. Our transform requires a CRS and an NPRO in the proof of soundness, similarly to Lindell’s transform.

In TCC 2015, Lindell embarked on the challenging task of obtaining a similar transform with improved heuristic security. Lindell showed that, for several interesting and practical languages, there exists an efficient transform in the

*non-programmable*random oracle (NPRO) model that also uses a common reference string (CRS). A major contribution of Lindell’s transform is that zero knowledge is proved without random oracles and this is an important step towards achieving efficient NIZK arguments in the CRS model without random oracles.In this work, we analyze the efficiency and generality of Lindell’s transform and notice a significant gap when compared with the FS transform. We then propose a new transform that aims at filling this gap. Indeed our transform is almost as efficient as the FS transform and can be applied to a broad class of public-coin HVZK proof systems. Our transform requires a CRS and an NPRO in the proof of soundness, similarly to Lindell’s transform.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Theory of Cryptography |

Editors | Eyal Kushilevitz, Tal Malkin |

Place of Publication | Berlin, Heidelberg |

Publisher | Springer Berlin Heidelberg |

Pages | 83-111 |

Number of pages | 29 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 978-3-662-49099-0 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-3-662-49098-3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2016 |

Event | 13th Theory of Cryptography Conference - Tel Aviv, Israel Duration: 10 Jan 2016 → 13 Jan 2016 https://www.iacr.org/workshops/tcc2016a/index.html |

### Conference

Conference | 13th Theory of Cryptography Conference |
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Abbreviated title | TCC 2016-A |

Country | Israel |

City | Tel Aviv |

Period | 10/01/16 → 13/01/16 |

Internet address |