We present an accreditation protocol for the outputs of noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices. By testing entire circuits rather than individual gates, our accreditation protocol can provide an upper-bound on the variation distance between noisy and noiseless probability distribution of the outputs of the target circuit of interest. Our accreditation protocol requires implementing quantum circuits no larger than the target circuit, therefore it is practical in the near term and scalable in the long term. Inspired by trap-based protocols for the verification of quantum computations, our accreditation protocol assumes that single-qubit gates have bounded probability of error. We allow for arbitrary spatial and temporal correlations in the noise affecting state preparation, measurements, single-qubit and two-qubit gates. We describe how to implement our protocol on real-world devices, and we also present a novel cryptographic protocol (which we call ‘mesothetic’ protocol) inspired by our accreditation protocol.
- NISQ devices
- sampling problems