Abstract / Description of output

Haemorrhage into the brain parenchyma can be devastating. This manifests as spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) after head trauma, and in the context of vascular dementia. Randomised controlled trials have not reliably shown that haemostatic treatments aimed at limiting ICH haematoma expansion and surgical approaches to reducing haematoma volume are effective. Consequently, treatments to modulate the pathophysiological responses to ICH, which may cause secondary brain injury, are appealing. Following ICH, microglia and monocyte derived cells are recruited to the peri-haematomal environment where they phagocytose haematoma breakdown products and secrete inflammatory cytokines, which may trigger both protective and harmful responses. The transcription factor Nrf2, is activated by oxidative stress, is highly expressed by central nervous system microglia and macroglia. When active, Nrf2 induces a transcriptional programme characterised by increased expression of antioxidant, haem and heavy metal detoxification and proteostasis genes, as well as suppression of proinflammatory factors. Therefore, Nrf2 activation may facilitate adaptive-protective immune cell responses to ICH by boosting resistance to oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity, whilst limiting harmful inflammatory signalling, which can contribute to further blood brain barrier dysfunction and cerebral oedema. In this review, we consider the responses of immune cells to ICH and how these might be modulated by Nrf2 activation. Finally, we propose potential therapeutic strategies to harness Nrf2 to improve the outcomes of patients with ICH.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1438
Number of pages23
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • astrocytes
  • bardoxolone methyl
  • dimethyl fumarate
  • inflammation
  • intracerebral haemorrhage
  • Nrf2
  • macrophages
  • microglia
  • monocytes
  • omaveloxolone
  • oxidative stress
  • perihaematomal oedema
  • sulforaphane
  • transcription factor


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