Adapting the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN) to Scottish Gaelic

Vicky Chondrogianni, Morna Butcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes the rationale for the adaptation of the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (LITMUS-MAIN) (Gagarina et al., 2012, 2015, 2019) to Scottish Gaelic (Gaelic) and presents some preliminary results from the macrostructure measures. Gaelic is a heritage minority language in Scotland being revitalised through immersion education, which spans across all levels of compulsory education (preschool, primary and secondary level). MAIN was adapted to Gaelic for two reasons: (i) to gauge the language abilities of children attending Gaelic immersion schools using an ecologically valid test, and (ii) to help identify areas of language impairment in children with Developmental Language Disorders within a broader battery of language tasks. Preliminary results from the macrostructure component indicate a wider range of Gaelic language abilities in six- to eight-year-old typically developing children in Gaelic-medium education. These results set the stage for future use of the tool within this context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-76
Number of pages8
JournalZAS Papers in Linguistics (ZASPiL)
Early online date31 Aug 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Aug 2020


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