Additive manufacturing of polyaniline electrodes for electrochemical applications

Ignacio Tudela, Valentin Menzel

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Due to its attractive properties, such as a high tuneable conductivity, pseudocapacitance, biocompatibility and chemical stability [1], polyaniline (PANI) has attracted significant research interest. PANI has been successfully incorporated in various composites for electrochemical applications (e.g. supercapactior [3] or sensor applications [3]), however its processability is still very limited and benefits from novel manufacturing techniques like additive manufacturing (AM) cannot fully be accessed yet [4]. Recently developed AM techniques [5] have opened up new possibilities for the application of PANI in AM. In this work, a novel AM process based on the thermal doping of the emeraldine form of PANI, PANI-EB, with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) is presented, which enables the fabrication of complex electrode geometries with conductivities up to 20 000 mS/cm [6]. For this, a commercially available Prusa i3 MK3S+ was modified with a custom made syringe extrusion system to enable the extrusion of a viscous PANI-EB/DBSA paste. In this study, the influence of the various printing parameters, such as hotbed temperature and treatment times, was characterised and the printed electrodes were analysed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy – attenuated total reflection, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The printed electrodes were used in a proof-of-concept fabrication of a fully 3D printed symmetric interdigitated electrochemical capacitor to demonstrate the easy and straightforward integration of the printed electrodes in electrochemical prototypes.

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[2] Shen, Y., Qin, Z., Li, T., Zeng, F., Chen, Y., Liu, N., Electrochimica Acta 356 136841 (2020).

[3] Bao, Q., Yang, Z., Song, Y., Fan, M., Pan, P., Liu, J., Liao, Z., Wei, J., J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 30 1751 (2018).

[4] Menzel, V. C. and Tudela, I., Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. 35 100742 (2022).

[5] Holness, F., Price, A. D., Smart Mater. Struct. 1 015006 (2018).

[6] Menzel, V. C., Yi, X., Bößl, F., Kirk, C., Robertson N, Tudela, I., Addit. Manuf. 54 102710 (2022)
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - May 2022
EventSCI Electrochemistry Postgraduate Conference 2022 - Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
Duration: 25 May 2022 → …


ConferenceSCI Electrochemistry Postgraduate Conference 2022
Abbreviated titleSCI-EPC
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Period25/05/22 → …
Internet address


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