AIR POLLUTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE The Paul Wood Lecture, British Cardiovascular Society 2021

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Air pollution is associated with up to 8.8-million excess deaths worldwide each year and is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Cardiovascular conditions are the predominant cause for air pollution-related deaths and there is an urgent need to address the silent pandemic of air pollution on cardiovascular health. Air pollution exposure is not only associated with acute events like acute coronary syndrome and stroke, but also with chronic conditions, such as atherosclerosis and heart failure. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed that link particle inhalation to cardiovascular disease including oxidative stress and inflammation, changes in autonomic balance and neuroendocrine regulation and the particle translocation into the circulation itself. This, in turn, can cause endothelial, vasomotor and fibrinolytic dysfunction and increased thrombogenicity and blood pressure which are implicated in the mediation of adverse cardiovascular events. Certain interventions can help mitigate these adverse effects. At an individual level, this includes the use of a facemask and indoor air purification systems. At an environmental level, interventions reducing the generation or release of combustion-derived pollutants are key and include public health policies to facilitate active transport, cleaner sources of energy, and reductions in vehicular and fossil fuel emissions. In this review, we summarise the key pathways and mechanisms that draw together how air pollution can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as explore potential interventions to reduce the burden of air pollution-induced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHeart
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2022

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • cardiovascular mortality

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