An efficient algorithm for the calculation of reserves for non-unit linked life policies

Mark Tucker*, J. Mark Bull

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The underlying stochastic nature of the requirements for the Solvency II regulations has introduced significant challenges if the required calculations are to be performed correctly, without resorting to excessive approximations, within practical timescales. It is generally acknowledged by practising actuaries within UK life offices that it is currently impossible to correctly fulfil the requirements imposed by Solvency II using existing computational techniques based on commercially available valuation packages. Our work has already shown that it is possible to perform profitability calculations at a far higher rate than is achievable using commercial packages. One of the key factors in achieving these gains is to calculate reserves using recurrence relations that scale linearly with the number of time steps. Here, we present a general vector recurrence relation which can be used for a wide range of non-unit linked policies that are covered by Solvency II; such contracts include annuities, term assurances, and endowments. Our results suggest that by using an optimised parallel implementation of this algorithm, on an affordable hardware platform, it is possible to perform the 'brute force' approach to demonstrating solvency in a realistic timescale (of the order of a few hours).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-161
Number of pages19
JournalAlgorithmic Finance
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • brute force
  • non-unit linked life reserves
  • OpenMP
  • parallel programming
  • Solvency II


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