Projects per year
We propose a general theoretical expression for sessile droplets' evaporation, incorporating thermal effects related to the thermal resistance of the substrate and liquid properties. We develop an expression which accounts for thermal effects associated with evaporative cooling; the latter leads to a reduction in the rate of evaporation, which is not accounted for in the current theories, i.e. ‘isothermal diffusion theories’. The threshold for transition to a regime in which thermal effects start to be significant is identified through a dimensionless number which includes substrate and liquid properties as well as the kinetics of evaporation. The proposed theory is validated against experimental data in a very wide range of conditions and for a variety of systems. The developed expression extends the domain of use of diffusion-based models for droplet evaporation and accurately describes some aspects of the phenomenon which, to the best of our knowledge, are highlighted for the first time.