An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract

Kylie M Georgas, Jane Armstrong, Janet R Keast, Christine E Larkins, Kirk M McHugh, E Michelle Southard-Smith, Martin J Cohn, Ekatherina Batourina, Hanbin Dan, Kerry Schneider, Dennis P Buehler, Carrie B Wiese, Jane Brennan, Jamie A Davies, Simon D Harding, Richard A Baldock, Melissa H Little, Chad M Vezina, Cathy Mendelsohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Malformation of the urogenital tract represents a considerable paediatric burden, with many defects affecting the lower urinary tract (LUT), genital tubercle and associated structures. Understanding the molecular basis of such defects frequently draws on murine models. However, human anatomical terms do not always superimpose on the mouse, and the lack of accurate and standardised nomenclature is hampering the utility of such animal models. We previously developed an anatomical ontology for the murine urogenital system. Here, we present a comprehensive update of this ontology pertaining to mouse LUT, genital tubercle and associated reproductive structures (E10.5 to adult). Ontology changes were based on recently published insights into the cellular and gross anatomy of these structures, and on new analyses of epithelial cell types present in the pelvic urethra and regions of the bladder. Ontology changes include new structures, tissue layers and cell types within the LUT, external genitalia and lower reproductive structures. Representative illustrations, detailed text descriptions and molecular markers that selectively label muscle, nerves/ganglia and epithelia of the lower urogenital system are also presented. The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1893-908
Number of pages16
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2015


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