Abstract / Description of output
Objectives: This study investigated antimicrobial susceptibility and genomic profiling of S. enterica isolated from bloodstream infections at a tertiary referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, 2018-2019.
Method: This was a prospective hospital-based study involving routine blood culture samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital. Identification of S. enterica and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles was achieved through conventional and automated methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted, and the sequence data outputs were processed for species identification, serotype determination, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profile determination, identification of antimicrobial resistance determinants, and phylogeny.
Results: Seventy-six Salmonella enterica were isolated and 64 isolates underwent WGS. Salmonella Typhi (72%) was the most prevalent serotype. Notable was the occurrence of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 (3%), resistance to cephalosporins (4%) and ciprofloxacin (5%), multidrug resistance (46%), and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (30%) and imipenem (3%). Phylogenetic cluster analysis showed multiple Salmonella serovars with a wide range of genetic diversity.
Conclusion: The genetic diversity of Salmonella Typhi, high prevalence of multidrug resistance, and the emergence of ciprofloxacin and cephalosporin resistance warrants improved hygiene and water and sanitation provision, continued surveillance to apprise antibiograms and inform policy, and the introduction of the typhoid conjugate vaccine.