Applied High-Speed Infra-Red Absorption Tomography for mixture stratification studies in Internal Combustion (IC) engines

Alex Tsekenis

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster


Strong economic and environmental incentives foster an industrial symbiosis between engine manufacturers and fuel developers for the development of modern internal combustion engines and their fuels.
“Euro 6 is scheduled to enter into force in January 2014 and will mainly reduce the emissions of NOx from diesel cars further, from 180mg/km to 80mg/km.” (Transport & Environment, 2012)
“Under the Cars Regulation, the fleet average to be achieved by all new cars is 130 grams of CO2 per kilometre (g/km) by 2015 – with the target phased in from 2012 (...) From 2012 to 2018, the penalties are €5 per vehicle for the first g/km of CO2; €15 for the second gram; €25 for the third gram; €95 from the fourth gram onwards.” (Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars, 2012)
Current CI engine research (Kalghatgi, 2011) (Bradley, 2009) focuses on the use of fuels less prone to auto-ignition in order to control the mixture homogeneity before combustion begins. Compared to traditional CI operation, mixtures of higher homogeneity combust at a reduced temperature, producing less NOx and Particulate Matter (PM).
The stratification level of the mixture inside the combustion chamber is critical. A condition is desirable where the mixture is inhomogeneous enough for combustion to begin, yet homogeneous enough for low emissions. To enable this research, the ability to image spatial concentration of fuel is crucial.
We have successfully applied a 2-D tomographic system to image the air/fuel mixture stratification during operation of an optical CI engine. Results from commissioning tests using iso-dodecane as a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) demonstrated the system’s ability to image near TDC.
Sampling is performed in real time, with a temporal resolution of 0.5 CAD at 1200 RPM. The employed infra-red absorption technique targets a desired molecule directly, thereby eliminating the need for a tracer molecule and making studies using multi-component fuels possible. The tomographic system is minimally-intrusive, requiring only an optical access window modification for installation.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2012
EventFuture Internal Combustion Engines and their Fuels - Oxford, United Kingdom
Duration: 12 Sep 2012 → …


ConferenceFuture Internal Combustion Engines and their Fuels
CountryUnited Kingdom
Period12/09/12 → …

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