Humans might have a propensity to associate a collective of multiple outgroup males with threat, even in the context of minimally defined groups. We tested this hypothesis using a fear-conditioning paradigm (Study 1) and a signal detection paradigm (Study 2). Results of Study 1 suggest that stimuli showing ingroup males are more easily associated with threat than stimuli showing outgroup males. Results of Study 2 suggest a bias to perceive single males (both ingroup and outgroup) as more threatening than multiple outgroup males. We discuss the contrast with results of previous studies.
- minimal groups
- error management