Arrhythmias: recognition and treatment

A. French

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract / Description of output

Neuroinflammation has an established link with AIDS-related dementia but has not been investigated in the post-highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. In this autopsy study we examined post-HAART cases in Edinburgh for the presence of HIV-related pathology and in well-treated cases for evidence of neuroinflammation. We focused on basal ganglia and the hippocampus, 2 key areas of the brain for cognitive functioning and compared pre- and post-HAART cases for neuroinflammatory status. We find evidence, post-HAART, that there is a high level of microglial/macrophage activation that is comparable with the levels seen, pre-HAART, in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and AIDS cases. This result was maximal in the hippocampus where microglial/macrophage upregulation in the HAART-treated group exceeded that seen in HIVE. In the basal ganglia, HAART-treated cases showed significantly higher levels of CD68-positive microglia/macrophages than in control brains (p = 0.004), and in the hippocampus levels were significantly higher than those seen in control cases, pre-HAART AIDS, and presymptomatic brains (p = 0.01). However, lymphocyte levels in the areas examined were low in HAART-treated cases. We conclude that there is a surprising degree of ongoing neuroinflammation in HAART-treated patients, particularly in the hippocampus. This may pose a threat for the future health of individuals maintained long-term on HAART therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication Conference proceedings: 33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Dublin, Ireland, 20-24 August 2008
EditorsM. Gething, B. Jones
Place of PublicationBondi
PublisherAustralian Small Animal Veterinary Association
ISBN (Print)9780955410062
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress - Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 20 Aug 200824 Aug 2008


Conference33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications/ drug therapy
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antigens, CD/metabolism
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/ methods
  • Brain/metabolism/pathology/virology
  • Central Nervous System Diseases/ drug therapy/etiology/ virology
  • Female
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry/methods
  • Inflammation/etiology/metabolism/pathology
  • Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


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