Artificial grammar learning in primary school children with and without developmental dyslexia

Elpis V. Pavlidou, Joanne Williams, Louise Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper explores implicit learning in typically developing and primary school children (9–12 years old) with developmental dyslexia using an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Two experiments were conducted, which differed in time of presentation and nature of the instructional set (experiment 1—implicit instructions vs experiment 2—explicit instructions). Repeated measures analysis of variance (group × grammaticality × chunk strength) showed a group effect only in experiment 1 (implicit instructions), with only the typically developing children showing evidence of AGL. There was a grammaticality effect (adherence to the rules) for both groups in the two experimental situations. We suggest that the typically developing children exhibited intact implicit learning as manifested in AGL performance, whereas children with developmental dyslexia failed to provide such evidence due to possible mediating cognitive developmental factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-77
JournalAnnals of Dyslexia
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Artificial grammar learning
  • Children
  • Developmental dyslexia
  • Implicit learning


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