UNLABELLED: Turner syndrome (TS), the result of a structurally abnormal or absent X chromosome, occurs in one in 2 000 live born females. The phenotype is highly variable, but short stature and gonadal dysgenesis are usually present. The main objective in adults with TS is health surveillance, but TS still causes a reduction in life expectancy of up to 13 years, with cardiovascular disease, congenital or acquired, as the major cause of an early death. While it has been established that all women with TS should undergo in-depth cardiovascular examination at diagnosis, advice on the cardiovascular management of women with TS is limited. Here, we provide a summary of our current practice within a multidisciplinary team, supported by our expertise in various aspects of cardiovascular risk management, and the evidence from research where it is available, with the aim of providing optimal support to our patients with TS.
BACKGROUND: A dedicated Adult Turner Clinic was established in South East Scotland in 2002. This gynaecology-led clinic serves a population of roughly 1·2 million and, currently, reviews around 50 women with TS annually. Referrals for adult care come from paediatrics or general practice. Following a series of individual case discussions regarding the management of more complex cardiovascular problems, we have assembled a dedicated multidisciplinary group to determine a timely cardiovascular screening strategy, a basis for specialist referral, and appropriate hypertension management. This team now includes a paediatric endocrinologist, gynaecologist, cardiologist (with an interest in inherited disorders), vascular radiologist and hypertension specialist. Here, we review the literature on cardiovascular disease in women with TS and, make recommendations, based on relatively limited high-quality evidence, together with our experience, on the optimal timing of cardiovascular screening.
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Risk Factors
- Turner Syndrome