The effects of in-feed probiotics on growth performance, haematological parameters, gut microbial content, and morphological changes to pangasius fish were assessed. The trial had three phases, i.e., larvae to fry (20 days), fry to fingerlings (45 days), and grow-out phase from fingerlings to marketing (90 days). The stocking densities were 400 m–3, 200 m–3, and 12 m–3 for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted in hapas in the same pond, whereas phase 3 was performed in concrete tanks. The in-feed probiotic was administered at a rate of 0.2 g kg–1 of feed three times per day in phases 1 and 2 only. In phase 3, in-feed probiotics was not applied to any groups. The treated group exhibited higher growth performances (p < 0.05) than the control in all three phases of experiment. The survival % in phase 1 and 2 were found significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treatment groups. This indicates that pangasius nurserers would benefit from using probiotics as a safeguard to increase fry survival to a greater extent. Two haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) levels were found significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated groups in phase 2 and 3, while glucose and hemoglobinlevel were found significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the treated groups during phases 2 and 3, respectively. The gut microbiota content was relatively higher in the treated groups in phase 2 and 3. Histological findings indicate that the use of probiotics during the nursing phases of pangasius induced a positive change in the intestinal morphological structures. The positive impacts of probiotics on the phase 3 confirmed an immediate and long-term growth performance and health of pangasius.
- Growth performance
- Intestinal morphology