Assessing the practicalities of joint snakebite and dog rabies control programs: Commonalities and potential pitfalls

Terence P. Scott*, Sanjib K. Sharma, Ryan M. Wallace, Louis H. Nel, Samir K. Adhikari, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, S. M. Thumbi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Both rabies and snakebite primarily affect underserved and impoverished communities globally, with an estimated 200,000 people dying from these diseases annually, and the greatest burden being in Africa and Asia. Both diseases have been neglected and have thus been denied appropriate prioritization, support, and interventions, and face many of the challenges common to all neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In line with the call for integrated approaches between NTDs in the recent NTD Roadmap, we sought to build upon previous conceptualizations for an integrated approach by identifying the commonalities between snakebite and rabies to explore the feasibility of an integrated approach. While multiple areas for potential integration are identified, we highlight the potential pitfalls to integrating rabies and snakebite programs, considering the nuances that make each disease and its intervention program unique. We conclude that health system strengthening, and capacity building should be the focus of any integrated approach among NTDs, and that by strengthening overall health systems, both rabies and snakebite can advocate for further support from governments and stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100084
Number of pages6
JournalToxicon: X
Early online date25 Sep 2021
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2021


  • cross-sectoral collaboration
  • health system strengthening
  • neglected tropical diseases
  • rabies
  • snakebite
  • universal health coverage


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