The risk of venous thromboembolism in patients following arthroplasty may be reduced by continuing chemical thromboprophylaxis for up to 35 days post-operatively. This prospective cohort study investigated the compliance of 40 consecutive consenting patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty with self-administration of a recommended subcutaneous chemotherapeutic agent for six weeks after surgery. Compliance was assessed by examination of the patient for signs of injection, number of syringes used, and a self-report diary at the end of the six-week period. A total of 40 patients, 15 men and 25 women, were recruited. One woman was excluded because immediate post-operative complications prevented her participation. Self-administration was considered feasible in 87% of patients (95% confidence interval (CI) 76 to 98) at the time of discharge. Among this group of 34 patients, 29 (85%) were compliant (95% CI 73 to 97). Patients can learn to self-administer subcutaneous injections of thromboprophylaxis, and compliance with extended prophylaxis to six weeks is good.