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The process of neutrophil apoptosis has an important role in the resolution of acute inflammation. Apoptotic cell death is characterized by a coordinated sequence of cellular alterations that serve to uncouple neutrophil effector functions whilst maintaining plasma membrane integrity. In this way the release on neutrophil intracellular contents, including proteases, glycosidases, and reactive oxygen species, is limited during apoptosis. In addition, plasma membrane alterations associated with neutrophil apoptosis provide molecular cues that enable recognition by phagocytic cells, including macrophages. The recognition and uptake of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages dampens proinflammatory responses to pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns and triggers release of proresolution mediators, that further promote resolution of inflammation. The key cellular and molecular events that act to control neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis have been characterized by in vitro studies, unveiling potential therapeutic targets for the manipulation of these regulatory pathways. In this chapter, we outline some of the key assays that are used to assess neutrophil apoptosis in vitro, together with methods to assess activation of the apoptotic machinery and phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neutrophils.
|Title of host publication||Neutrophil|
|Subtitle of host publication||Methods and Protocols|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 15 Nov 2019|
|Name||Methods in Molecular Biology|