Association of schistosomiasis and risk of prostate cancer development in residents of Murehwa rural community, Zimbabwe

Emilia T. Choto, Takafira Mduluza, Francisca Mutapi, Moses J. Chimbari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background
Prostatic male genital schistosomiasis and prostate cancer co-existence cases are uncommon however, some studies have indicated that schistosomiasis may trigger development of prostate cancer regardless of age. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and may account for some undocumented cases of schistosomiasis prostatic cancer in schistosome endemic rural communities. It is against this background that we investigated the association between schistosomiasis and risk of prostate cancer development in residents of Murehwa Community, a schistosomiasis endemic area. 
Methodology
We conducted a cross sectional study involving 366 men residing in Murehwa District, Zimbabwe. Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection was diagnosed using urine filtration and Kato Katz techniques, respectively. Haematuria was detected using urinalysis reagent strip test. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain history of schistosomiasis infection among study participants. Risk of prostate cancer development was assessed by measuring prostate-specific antigen levels in serum using the ELISA. 
Results
Prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection was 12.3 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Individuals with schistosomiasis had higher prostate-specific antigen levels (mean 1.208 ± SD 1.557 ng/mL) compared to those without schistosomiasis (mean 0.7721 ± SD 1.173 ng/mL; p < 0.05). Older individuals > 50 years had higher prostate specific antigen levels (mean 0.7212 ± SD 1.313 ng/mL) compared to individuals < 50 years old (mean 0.4159 ± SD 0.8622 ng/mL; p < 0.05). Prostate-specific antigen levels log10 (mean 0.2584 ± SD 0.2128ng/mL) and were associated to S. haematobium infection intensity log10 (mean 1.121 ± SD 0.5371 eggs/10mL), r(s) = -0.3225, p < 0.05. There was a correlation between prostate-specific antigen levels log10 (mean 0.2246 ± SD 0.1858 ng/mL) and S. haematobium infection intensity log10 (mean 1.169 ± SD 0.5568 eggs/10mL) among participants with a history of schistosomiasis infection (r(s) = -0.3520; p < 0.05). There was no correlation between prostate-specific antigen levels of > 4 ng/mL (mean 5.324 ± SD1.568 ng/mL) and schistosome eggs log10 (mean 1.057 ± SD 0.6730 eggs/10mL; p > 0.05).
Conclusion
Urogenital schistosome infections and history of schistosome infections were associated with prostate specific antigen levels, an indicator for risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, S. haematobium schistosome egg burden was associated with the risk of prostate cancer development in adult males residing in Murehwa District, Zimbabwe.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalInfectious Agents and Cancer
Volume15
Issue number59
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • schistosomiasis
  • male genital schistosomiasis
  • prostate cancer
  • prostate specific antigen
  • S. haematobium
  • S. mansoni
  • urogenital schistosomiasis

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