ATC-ANNO: Semantic annotation for air traffic control with assistive auto-annotation

Marc Schulder, Johannah O'Mahony, Yury Bakanouski, Dietrich Klakow

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract / Description of output

In air traffic control, assistant systems support air traffic controllers in their work. To improve the reactivity and accuracy of the assistant, automatic speech recognition can monitor the commands uttered by the controller. However, to provide sufficient training data for the speech recognition system, many hours of air traffic communications have to be transcribed and semantically annotated. For this purpose we developed the annotation tool ATC-ANNO. It provides a number of features to support the annotator in their task, such as auto-complete suggestions for semantic tags, access to preliminary speech recognition predictions, syntax highlighting and consistency indicators. Its core assistive feature, however, is its ability to automatically generate semantic annotations. Although it is based on a simple hand-written finite state grammar, it is also able to annotate sentences that deviate from this grammar. We evaluate the impact of different features on annotator efficiency and find that automatic annotation allows annotators to cover four times as many utterances in the same time.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference
Subtitle of host publicationLREC 2020
EditorsNicoletta Calzolari, Frédéric Béchet, Philippe Blache, Khalid Choukri, Christopher Cieri, Thierry Declerck, Sara Goggi, Hitoshi Isahara, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Hélène Mazo, Asuncion Moreno, Jan Odijk, Stelios Piperidis
Place of PublicationMarseille, France
PublisherEuropean Language Resources Association (ELRA)
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9791095546344
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2020
Event12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference - Le Palais du Pharo, Marseille, France
Duration: 11 May 202016 May 2020
Conference number: 12


Conference12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference
Abbreviated titleLREC 2020
Internet address

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • annotation tool
  • controlled languages
  • air traffic control
  • assisted annotation


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