Augmented Skepticsim: The Epistemological Design of Augmented Reality

Spyridon Palermos

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


In order to solve the problem of the traditional account of knowledge, according to which justification is the ability to provide reflectively accessible positive reasons in support of one’s beliefs, a number of epistemologists have suggested that knowledge is true belief that is the product of cognitive ability. According to this alternative, a belief-forming process may count as a knowledge-conducive cognitive ability if and only if it has been cognitively integrated on the basis of processes of mutual interactions with other aspects of the agents’ cognitive system. One of the advantages of this approach is that it allows knowledge and justification to be extended to such artifacts as telescopes, microscopes, smartphones and augmented reality (AR) systems. AR systems, however, rely on deceptive reality augmentations that could significantly deteriorate the epistemic efficiency of users’ cognitively integrated natures. This could lead to a form of ‘augmented skepticism’, whereby it will be impossible to tell augmented from physical reality apart. In order to solve this problem, epistemology should play an active role in the design of future AR systems and practices. To this end, this chapter puts forward some initial suggestions, concerning the training of AR users and the design of certain reality augmentation features, in order to ensure that everyday epistemic practices won’t be disrupted by the introduction of emerging AR technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAugmented Reality
EditorsJose Maria Ariso
PublisherDe Gruyter
ISBN (Print)978-3-11-049765-6
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

Publication series

NameBerlin Stidies in Knowledge Research 11


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  • Extended Knowledge

    Pritchard, D., Clark, A., Kallestrup, J., Carter, J. A. & Palermos, S. O.



    Project: Research

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