Availability, Promotion, and Signs of Alcohol Consumption: A Mixed Methods Study of Perceived Exposure and Objective Measures

Andrea Pastor, Irene Molina De La Fuente, María Sandín Vázquez, Paloma Conde, Marina Bosque-prous, Manuel Franco, Niamh Shortt, Xisca Sureda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

This study describes the alcohol environment comparing residents’ perceptions and objective measures in two different income-level districts. Measures were gathered between 2017 and 2018 in two districts with different income levels in Madrid, Spain. We obtained perceived measures using Photovoice. We procured objective measures through social systematic observation. Data were integrated using triangulation. Perceived and objective measures of the alcohol environment were characterized and compared in terms of alcohol availability, alcohol promotion, and signs of alcohol consumption. The integration was classified as agreement, partial agreement, or dissonance. The results related to alcohol availability and signs of its consumption showed high agreement. Availability was high in both areas, which was recognized by residents. Residents of the high-income district (HID) discussed fewer signs of alcohol consumption, whilst those in the low-income district (LID) reported extensive signs of consumption. Such observations agreed with the objective measures. There were dissonances between the approaches for alcohol promotion. Although the alcohol promotion was higher in HID according to the objective measures, it was deeply discussed by LID residents. Both methodologies helped us deepen the understanding of the alcohol environment. These results may help design more effective interventions to prevent hazardous drinking.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8153
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2020


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