Ballistic performance of hybrid 3D woven composites: Experiments and simulations

R. Muñoz, F. Martínez-Hergueta, F. Gálvez, C. González, J. LLorca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The mechanical behavior under ballistic impact of a hybrid 3D woven orthogonal composite with an asymmetric distribution of fibers was studied by means of a combination of impact tests and X-ray computed tomography analysis of the failure mechanisms. It was found that the presence of through-thickness z-yarns did not significantly improve the ballistic performance, as compared with 2D woven composites, because damage was localized around the projectile trajectory in both cases. Nevertheless, the energy dissipated by the hybrid 3D woven composites was enhanced if the specimen was impacted on the carbon face. Finally, it was demonstrated that the residual velocity curves as well as the energy dissipation mechanisms could be reproduced by means of numerical simulations based on the embedded element method within the finite element analysis framework.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-151
Number of pages11
JournalComposite Structures
Early online date14 Mar 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2015

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