Barriers to attendance of canine rabies vaccination campaigns in Haiti, 2017

Galileu Barbosa Costa, Fleurinord Ludder, Benjamin Monroe, Pierre Dilius, Kelly Crowdis, Jesse D Blanton, Emily G Pieracci, Jennifer R Head, Andrew D Gibson, Ryan M Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We conducted a cross-sectional survey to better understand the barriers to attendance at canine rabies vaccination campaigns in Haiti. A structured community-based questionnaire was conducted over a 15-day period during May-June 2017, focused on socio-economic status correlated with participation at canine rabies vaccination campaigns. Questions phrased as a bidding game were asked to determine individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for dog rabies vaccination and willingness to walk (WTW) to fixed-point vaccination campaigns. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was applied to determine relationships between survey variables. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with participants' WTP and WTW. A total of 748 households from eight communities were surveyed. Respondents were predominantly female (54.4%) and had a median age of 45 years. The total number of owned dogs reported from households was 926, yielding a human-to-dog ratio in dog-owning households of 5.2:1. The majority of dogs (87.2%) were acquired for security, and 49% were allowed to roam freely; 42.0% of dog owners reported that they were unable to manage (or restrain) their dogs using a leash. Seventy per cent of dog owners were willing to pay up to 15.9 gourdes (0.25 USD) and/or walk up to 75 m to vaccinate their dogs. Households that owned free-roaming dogs, owned dogs for the purpose of companionship and owned dogs that they were unable to walk on a leash were associated with a higher WTP for vaccination. Living in Artibonite Department, having a middle or higher household income, and owning a dog for security purpose were associated with a higher WTW for vaccination. Low leash use and propensity for dogs to roam freely are barriers to successful fixed-point vaccination methods in Haiti, and alternative methods such as door to door (DD), capture-vaccinate-release (CVR) or oral vaccination should be explored. There may be some prospect for fee-for-service vaccination in Haiti; however, this programme should be introduced as a supplement, rather than a replacement for free rabies vaccination programmes so that mass dog vaccination is not discouraged.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Early online date21 May 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 May 2020


  • barriers
  • canine vaccination
  • disease control
  • Haiti
  • Rabies
  • walk
  • zoonosis
  • payment


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