Benchmarking knowledge-driven zero-shot learning

Yuxia Geng, Jiaoyan Chen, Xiang Zhuang, Zhuo Chen, Jeff Z. Pan, Juan Li, Zonggang Yuan, Huajun Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


External knowledge (a.k.a. side information) plays a critical role in zero-shot learning (ZSL) which aims to predict with unseen classes that have never appeared in training data. Several kinds of external knowledge, such as text and attribute, have been widely investigated, but they alone are limited with incomplete semantics. Some very recent studies thus propose to use Knowledge Graph (KG) due to its high expressivity and compatibility for representing kinds of knowledge. However, the ZSL community is still in short of standard benchmarks for studying and comparing different external knowledge settings and different KG-based ZSL methods. In this paper, we proposed six resources covering three tasks, i.e., zero-shot image classification (ZS-IMGC), zero-shot relation extraction (ZS-RE), and zero-shot KG completion (ZS-KGC). Each resource has a normal ZSL benchmark and a KG containing semantics ranging from text to attribute, from relational knowledge to logical expressions. We have clearly presented these resources including their construction, statistics, data formats and usage cases w.r.t. different ZSL methods. More importantly, we have conducted a comprehensive benchmarking study, with a few classic and state-of-the-art methods for each task, including a method with KG augmented explanation. We discussed and compared different ZSL paradigms w.r.t. different external knowledge settings, and found that our resources have great potential for developing more advanced ZSL methods and more solutions for applying KGs for augmenting machine learning. All the resources are available at
Original languageEnglish
Article number100757
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Web Semantics
Early online date17 Sep 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Zero-shot learning
  • Knowledge Graph
  • Image classification
  • Relation extraction
  • Knowledge Graph completion
  • Ontology
  • Semantic embedding


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