Biosignatures on Mars: What, Where, and How? Implications for the Search for Martian Life

Frances Westall*, Frederic Foucher, Nicolas Bost, Marylene Bertrand, Damien Loizeau, Jorge L. Vago, Gerhard Kminek, Frederic Gaboyer, Kathleen A. Campbell, Jean-Gabriel Breheret, Pascale Gautret, Charles S. Cockell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The search for traces of life is one of the principal objectives of Mars exploration. Central to this objective is the concept of habitability, the set of conditions that allows the appearance of life and successful establishment of microorganisms in any one location. While environmental conditions may have been conducive to the appearance of life early in martian history, habitable conditions were always heterogeneous on a spatial scale and in a geological time frame. This punctuated scenario of habitability would have had important consequences for the evolution of martian life, as well as for the presence and preservation of traces of life at a specific landing site. We hypothesize that, given the lack of long-term, continuous habitability, if martian life developed, it was (and may still be) chemotrophic and anaerobic. Obtaining nutrition from the same kinds of sources as early terrestrial chemotrophic life and living in the same kinds of environments, the fossilized traces of the latter serve as useful proxies for understanding the potential distribution of martian chemotrophs and their fossilized traces. Thus, comparison with analog, anaerobic, volcanic terrestrial environments (Early Archean >3.5-3.33Ga) shows that the fossil remains of chemotrophs in such environments were common, although sparsely distributed, except in the vicinity of hydrothermal activity where nutrients were readily available. Moreover, the traces of these kinds of microorganisms can be well preserved, provided that they are rapidly mineralized and that the sediments in which they occur are rapidly cemented. We evaluate the biogenicity of these signatures by comparing them to possible abiotic features. Finally, we discuss the implications of different scenarios for life on Mars for detection by in situ exploration, ranging from its non-appearance, through preserved traces of life, to the presence of living microorganisms. Key Words: MarsEarly EarthAnaerobic chemotrophsBiosignaturesAstrobiology missions to Mars. Astrobiology 15, 998-1029.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)998-1029
Number of pages32
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Mars
  • Early Earth
  • Anaerobic chemotrophs
  • Biosignatures
  • Astrobiology missions to Mars


Dive into the research topics of 'Biosignatures on Mars: What, Where, and How? Implications for the Search for Martian Life'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this