Bipolar disorder: Diagnosis, treatment and future directions

Natalie m Lane, Daniel j Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Bipolar disorder is a relatively common mental illness, characterised by recurrent episodes of mania (or hypomania) and major depression, and associated with a significant burden of morbidity and premature mortality. Physicians across all specialities are likely to encounter individuals with the condition within their clinical practice. This short review provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical features, epidemiology, pathophysiology, evidence-based management, prognosis and future directions for treatment and research in bipolar disorder. Aspects of cross-specialty relevance are highlighted, including the physical health burden associated with the condition, and the side effects and safety considerations of medication regimes used in bipolar disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-196
JournalJournal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • bipolar depression
  • bipolar disorder
  • circadian rhythms
  • hypomania
  • mania
  • precision medicine


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