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Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is preserved or increased in states of caloric restriction. Similarly, we found that BMAT in the tail vertebrae, but not the red marrow in the tibia, resists loss of neutral lipid with acute, 48-hour fasting in rats. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and its seemingly distinct regulation from peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT) remain unknown. To test the role of β-adrenergic stimulation, a major regulator of adipose tissue lipolysis, we examined the responses of BMAT to β-adrenergic agonists. Relative to inguinal WAT, BMAT had reduced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) after treatment with pan-β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Phosphorylation of HSL in response to β3-adrenergic agonist CL316,243 was decreased by an additional ~90% (distal tibia BMAT) or could not be detected (tail vertebrae). Ex vivo, adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis in purified BMAT adipocytes was also substantially less than iWAT adipocytes and had site-specific properties. Specifically, regulated bone marrow adipocytes (rBMAs) from proximal tibia and femur underwent lipolysis in response to both CL316,243 and forskolin, while constitutive BMAs from the tail responded only to forskolin. This occurred independently of changes in gene expression of β-adrenergic receptors, which were similar between adipocytes from iWAT and BMAT, and could not be explained by defective coupling of β-adrenergic receptors to lipolytic machinery through caveolin 1. Specifically, we found that whereas caveolin 1 was necessary to mediate maximal stimulation of lipolysis in iWAT, overexpression of caveolin 1 was insufficient to rescue impaired BMAT signaling. Lastly, we tested the ability of BMAT to respond to 72-hour treatment with CL316,243 in vivo. This was sufficient to cause beiging of iWAT adipocytes and a decrease in iWAT adipocyte cell size. By contrast, adipocyte size in the tail BMAT and distal tibia remained unchanged. However, within the distal femur, we identified a subpopulation of BMAT adipocytes that underwent lipid droplet remodeling. This response was more pronounced in females than in males and resembled lipolysis-induced lipid partitioning rather than traditional beiging. In summary, BMAT has the capacity to respond to β-adrenergic stimuli, however, its responses are muted and BMAT generally resists lipid hydrolysis and remodeling relative to iWAT. This resistance is more pronounced in distal regions of the skeleton where the BMAT adipocytes are larger with little intervening hematopoiesis, suggesting that there may be a role for both cell-autonomous and microenvironmental determinants. Resistance to β-adrenergic stimuli further separates BMAT from known regulators of energy partitioning and contributes to our understanding of why BMAT is preserved in states of fasting and caloric restriction.
- Journal Article
Will Cawthorn (Invited speaker)1 Dec 2018
Activity: Academic talk or presentation types › Invited talk